户外人像不再手忙脚乱人像摄影的3条基本功

人像是摄影圈最受欢迎的题材,相比于风光摄影,人像摄影更需要综合的技巧和判断,也是街拍或纪实摄影的基石。但这里我们要提到的,并非是影棚中需要人工布光的商业人像,而是借助自然的光线在室外拍摄的人像作品。那么拍好一张人像照片需要怎样的必要条件呢?

·眼神的焦点

对于人像的拍摄,我认为重中之重的要点,是能够捕捉住到每个人的特征与神韵,让他人能够通过一张照片便能触碰带被摄人物的内心。而眼睛是心灵之窗,想要拍出人物的神韵,就要抓住眼睛的动向。例如使用大光圈镜头拍摄半身或头部近景时,可以将焦点落于瞳孔之上,整幅画面便会活了起来。

但要注意的是,当使用大光圈的时候,焦平面非常窄,稍不留神便会失焦,比如落到鼻翼或耳朵上。尤其是在拍摄人物侧面肖像的时候,这样的问题会很容易出现,严重影响到画面整体的视觉品质。因此在按下快门之前,时要仔细确认焦点落于何处。

·巧用光线

不同于室内人像,户外人像有着更大灵活性,可以借助不同的景致和光线,来捕捉不同人物的特点。因此,自然光线对于拍摄人像来说是至关重要的——当然,我们需要知道如何有效利用自然光。顺光拍摄会让人物面部轮廓分明,但如果是正午或下午的光线太过强烈,被摄对象很难顺光睁开眼睛,面部的阴影也显得很明显。因此,选择正确的时间非常重要。通常来讲,在阳光明媚的天气情况下,早间10点前,和下午3点后都非常适合人像拍摄。尤其是在早晚的时候,可以借助柔和温暖的光线拍摄逆光画面,会带来非常柔美温馨的氛围。

有的时候,在光线不理想的情况下,尤其是在逆光情况或夜景情况下,我们需要为人物进行适当的补光,比如借助外界的人工光线或是自然界的反光。说到反光,可能有些朋友会不太理解,除了反光板之外,该如何寻找反光。实际上,镜面和白墙,都能起到反光的作用,在一些情况下,甚至比人工反光板还要自然。而来到夜晚,橱窗中的灯光可以有效地为人物进行补光。但从头顶上方射下的路灯,会给面部带来浓重的阴影,会影响到面部的表情。

·活用焦段

那么,面对户外环境中多变的场景,该如何选择焦段呢?实际上,这一点并没有具体的答案,从超广到长焦,都有着其独特的成像魅力。因此具体还是要看你想要拍出什么样的照片。

28mm和35mm的镜头更适合表现全身的画面,并且可以包容周围的环境,不需要距离被摄对象太远就能够拍出全身照,更便于彼此之间的交流。但值得注意的是,越广的焦段对背景的要求越高,换句话说,需要背景足够好看或简洁,才不会对人物本身造成干扰。如果焦距的选择在50mm 以上,这样的焦段更适合半身或面部近景。而85mm的镜头通常被认为是人像的专属镜头,容易获得较浅的景深获得背景虚化,也可以保证人物不会显得过于臃肿。

灵活掌握了以上三点最为基本的人像摄影技术,剩下要做的其实还有很多,比如如何为人像摄影构图,如何利用前景和背景,如何摆Pose,甚至是如何处理一张人像摄影的照片….这些话题,我们以后慢慢来聊!

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