简单3招!彻底改变你的风光照

风光摄影一直是最受欢迎的摄影门类之一,许多人正是出于对拍摄美好自然风光的渴求才走上了摄影之路。但风光摄影这个门类是典型的易上手,难精通。稍微接触一段时间摄影的人,都能拍出构图良好、画面清晰、曝光正确的风光照,但总感觉照片好像缺少点什么,没有打动人心之处。


上图就是一个好例子。这张影友提供的新手习照,从构图取景到曝光对焦,都做的不错,却总感觉好像缺了什么。你有过这种感受吗?这是每个人都会遇上的,从入门级到专业级的瓶颈。想要突破瓶颈,或许你要开始考虑这3个方面了。


一、发掘景物的独特性与新鲜感

我们拍摄的景物本身要有吸引人的独特性。太普通的景物,无论你拍摄技术多高超,也很难拍出非常优秀的风光照。对于这个问题你只能多走、多看、多拍,没有什么特别的解决办法,勤快才能出好片。


一棵普通的树,你再怎么拍,也只是一棵普通的树

而有的景物本身确实具有出众的吸引人的独特性,但也正因为如此,拍的人太多,观众丧失了新鲜感,开始对其熟视无睹。例如黄山的迎客松,本身具有苍劲挺拔、亭亭如盖的优雅姿态和独特风骨,一直是摄影爱好者们钟爱的拍摄对象。
但由于关于迎客松的作品实在太多,我们现在再看见迎客松的照片已经不会有什么欣赏感,哪怕它拍得再好,也不会让我们觉得惊艳。


哪怕是你拍得像画一样美,别人也只会觉得“技术不错”

所以,现在再拍迎客松这个主题,人们总会想方设法从它身上发掘出新的独特之处,给观众带来新鲜感。例如,利用特殊的天气,如雪和雾,为迎客松添加特殊的视觉效果。

白色的迎客松看着就新奇多了

利用日落日出时特殊的光影效果,也是不错的选择。

迎客松日出

还记得序言里那张比较平凡的新手习作吗?同样的场景,稍微变动一下,利用特殊天气和光影效果,画面立马焕然一新。

是不是好看多了?


二、聚焦细节,增加画面内涵


许多摄影教程中都提过,不要总是想着拍摄全景大风光,很重要的一个原因就是这样做会丧失对细节的表现力。而细节,往往可以赋予画面丰富的内涵,表达出独特的意境。

以“西北地区的胡杨”这个拍摄主题为例,全景的胡杨林风光,美则美矣,平淡无奇。


又如这张,美西国家公园,集中表现裸露岩石表面的纵横纹理,不仅具有韵律性的视觉美,还体现了一种悠远岁月的沧桑感。


但如果聚焦一棵枯死的胡杨树,集中表达其扭曲的枝干,龟裂的纹路,体现了西北环境的恶劣和胡杨的坚强,画面极富冲突性和深刻内涵。



三、控制色调影调

画面的亮度和总体色偏能有力地表达出不同的画面情绪。结合客观天气状况,选取适合你的画面影调。要做到这一点,我们必须对自然环境的色调变化规律有所认识。

例如,阴雨天气影调会偏低,适合表达沉闷凝重、忧伤压抑或神秘的情感。

而在日出的过程中,天空先是以蓝为主,之后慢慢变成玫瑰红色,接着红色加深变成大红色,再接下来黄色逐渐增加,亮度提高,变成我们平时看到的日光。
日落则是个逆过程,黄色先慢慢减少,画面开始变红,之后红色慢慢减少,开始变成冷色调。

日落时分的天空颜色变化过程

结合自然条件,为照片添加色偏,是表达画面主题,丰富画面情绪和内涵的好办法。有人说了,为什么不用后期添加色偏呢?

永远不要太依赖后期,后期人为添加与环境条件相差太多的色调,画面很容易出现不自然的异常色块。

上图右侧是原图的环境光条件,而左图是我试图通过用纯后期手段创造冷色调的成果。先调整画面整体色调,再强行降低红、黄饱和度,提高蓝饱和度。画面主体是成功变成了冷调,但顶部的天空就变成了这种诡异的绿色,怎么都消不掉了……大失败!

自然的光线条件是很复杂的,完全依靠后期处理控制色调,很可能会顾此失彼,出现很不自然的地方,毁掉整个画面。能在拍照环节解决的问题,就尽量不要留给后期环节,切记切记。后期有风险,PS 需谨慎!

最后为您奉上的这张图,是一张在摄影界非常有争议的获奖风光摄影作品。

摄影师用他高超的后期技术创造了梦幻般的色调和色彩对比,但因此也几乎被取消了获奖资格。最终他虽然还是获奖了,引发的“摄影作品中能容忍多少 PS”这一争论,一直到现在还经久不息…

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